Friday, July 11, 2008

articles from isl: critcl concepts v. 4

"The reconstruction of relus arenas in the framework of 'multiple modtys'" by S. N. Eisenstadt in Islm: critical concepts v. 4

2-"multiple modernities" refers to how after wwII nations each interpreted modty in their own unique ways
3- implies that w. styles are not the only authentic kinds, and all kinds are constantly changing

5-in the w., mody dvlpd in 2 main ways, relus authority and Jacobinsim--the belief in the "primacy of politics"
6-emphasis on Jacobinism gave rise to social protest, even relus protest was put in terms of poll action
8-tho mod social mvmnts started in the w., non w. countries used them b/c it helped to "rebel against the institutional realities of the new mod civilaztion in therms of its own symbols and premises"--so this transported the movement to the intl scene, and allowed non w societies to incorp 'universal elements of modty in the construction of their new collective idys"

-says: "beginning" w/ the student movmnts of the 60s and 70s and went to wmn, ecol, ethnic and later fund/communal relus
-but social settings began to change w/ G, diasporas, intl crime, intl disease, intl finance
-so new mvmnts dont feel as bound by the nation-state

-these dvlpments "precipitated the ressurrection, or rather reconstruction, of hitherto 'subdued' idys--ethnic, local, regional, and transntl--ant their positing into the centre of their respective societies, and often also in the intl arena>"

9-these new mvments WANT to b "domiciled" in their respective countries but on new terms, as opposed to classical models of assimilation
-tho they are local and particular, they are also entering the intl arena

10-fund movmnts have modern Jacobin characteristics--which are very similar to communist themes, desire for a new social order, use of revry and universalist tenets, use mod communication and techs and mod propoganda technqes, plus the Jacobin orientation in the "sanctification of the reconstruction of teh cenre as a conitnuous liminal arena, sanctification often connected w/ ritual violence and terror."
12-eg after rev, iran kept some non-islmic rooted institutions like the parliament and presidencey of republic and elections

13-on the other hand, communal-ntlst mvments are not universalistic and do not "advocate the reconstruction of society by a polly active centre'

14 both fund and communist/fascist mvmnts denied reason, but fascists stress human will while funds stress gods will

16-fund mvmnts dvlp mostly in monotheistic civilizations b/c emphasis on absolut faith
17-they try to completley disassociate wsterztn from modty and deny many basic premises of enlightenment

19-when ppl say these mvmnts rep the end of mdy or a new phase (based on these groups violence) they are wrong b/c mody spread thru violence. while some ppl said the violence was a result of premodern attitudes, it really was and integral part to mdy.
-the holocaust became a symbol of the 'barbarism lurking within the very core of mdy'

"islm, the w. and the world" by immanuel wallerstein from islam: cricl concepts v. 4

26-the term fundamentalism originated in the early 20th ce US, particularly w/ baptists, who called for a return to "fundamentals", which meant a dislike of modernsm's influence on rel.
-this label was placed by wnrs on islm
27-this author says fund can by also budd, hind, jew, anything

28-19th ce social movemnts became 2 kinds: social democratic and communist
30-by 1968, tho, ppl realized that the old social mvments didnt really help, there was by then a bigger gap btwn rich and poor. thats what caused the uprisings

31- says arab mvmnts in first half of 20th ce were only nominally muslim, but things started changing w/ israel in 1948
32-Israel added "a locally based enemy that was less ready to make concessions than the collective w."

33-islmcts support tech advance--recruit engineers, college trained ppl

35-"The combo of xn guilt about anti-semitism, world-wide jewish support of israel, and the w. view of the utility of israel as an element in teh poll stabilization of the world's major oil zone has resulted int eh media's id of so-called islmc terrorism as the grand demon of the 1990s"--which was esp exacerbated since the commie threat disappeared


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