Teaching for diversity and social justice: a sourcebook
2-"social justices includes a vision of society with equitable distribution of resources" and all ppl psycchologically and physically safe and self determining
3-'"common sense" knowledge and assumptions make it difficult to see oppression clearly. we discuss the value of history for discerning patterns that r often incisible in daily life but which reflect sytemic aspects of oppression."
4-theory and practicality are intertwing parts of the interactive and historical process--called praxis by Freire (70)
7-2 key ideas about racism dvlpd in the 60s: 1) it "stigmatizes and violates both dominant and dominated groups", 2) it "fuctns thru unconscious attitudes and behaviors of a society that presumes and unacknowledge but pervasive white cultural norm"
8-9-"more recently, postcolonial studies and pomo theories, and ongoing discussion within various social mvmnts, have gegun to challenge simple binary categories"-"notions that aessentialize or treat as innately give the groupings created within an oppressive social order"--"The inadequacey of defining the experc of indivs and groups in simplistic binary terms is reflected thru challenges within the gay/lesbian mvmnt raised by bisexual, trnassexual and transgendered ppl wnd w/in the black mvments by biracial and multiracial ppl. the range of expercs of ppl holding mulitple idys and diverse social group memberships poses conintuing challenges to theories of oppression to account for their expercs"
9-in the us, tho we are socialized to view life in indvl terms, "our idys r fundamntally constructed in relation to others and to the cultures in which we are embedded" (bakhtin 81, epstein 87, vygotsky 78). "it is impossible to separate our indv idys from the various social group memberships we hold." "one of the priveleges of dominant group status is the luxury to simply see oneself as an indv"
10-"one of the most in invidious mechanisms of oppression is the eradication of subordinate group cultures thru the imposition of the dominant groups culture and lang"
-Idys change b/c first, see p. 9, and then their social relations change (young 90: 48) and gorups (anzaldua 87, mohanty 91 trinh 89)
11--general patterns of inequality persist despite efforts to change them (young 90)
-gramsci put forth the idea that power is maintained thru coercison and voluntary consent (moorow and torres 95)
-hegemony-a dominant group can project its view so scucessfully that it's seen as common sense, natural order (tong 89), so we all participate in it (foucault 80)
-hegemony is maintined thru 'discouse' (ideas,texts, theories, lang), embodied in networks of social and pol.l control, "regimes of truth" (foucautl 80) which legitimate who has authority to speak and what is sanctioned as true (kreisberg 92)
12- normalizatn of oppression happens when we internatlize attitudes and roles that reinforce systems of domination w/out question
13-part of the taks of change is to gengage ppl from both groups in examining the costs of maintaining systems of domination. eg. homelessness and hunger in US, costs dominat group the ease at which they see the us as a just society, and blinds them to the underlying structures which can prevent them fro fixing future bigger economic problems, which can lead to rising violence and urban decay
14-hegemony is never total, it is always open to contestations (morrow and torres 95). the contradictions btwn espoused social principles and lived experiences offer one place to begin.
16-umasss scholl of ed work to models of diff ethnic group Idy dvlpmnt and extended them "to a generic model that examines how members of agent and target groups experience internalized domination or internalized subordination..." [black-jackson 76, white-hardiman 79,82, other ppl of color- kim 81, cross 71, 78, 91 helms 90, schapiro 85 biracial- wijeyesinghe 92]
17. thinking is informed by fannon 67,68, frieir 70, 73, memmi 65, glodenberg 78 and miller 76
-"our starting pt is that once systems of oppression r in place they are self0perpetuating"
-oppression is not simply and ideology of superiority or of sicrimination, it includes a) agent group has the power to define and name reality and determine what is "normal," "real" or "correct" b) institutionalzd discrimination, its considered "biz as usual" c) "pyschological colonization" is socializing the oppressed to internalize their oppressed ocniditon and collude with the oppressors ideology and social sytem d) the target groups culture lang and history is misrespresented, discounted or eradicated and the domint groups culture is imposed
-"part of the mothod of establishing dominance in the system of oppression is the naming of the target group by the agent group"
18-oppression is maintained at 3 levels: indvl, isntitutional, societal/cultural
20-memmi (65) argued that if oppression lasts long enough it "becomes so familiar to oppressed ppl that they accept it and connot imagine recovery from it"
-firere (70) argues that agents are "dehumanized b/c they have engaged in a process of stealing the humanity of others"
23--generalized idy dvlpmnt theory: 1) naive/no social consciousness 2) passive/active acceptance 3) passive/active resistance 4) redefinition 5) internalization
24-shaped thru messages conveyed by parents (most imprtnt), formal ed (teachers, cirriculum), peers, relus orgs, mass media, larger community w/ its norms, laws, social structures
25-"Most agents are well into their adult years before encountering events or circumstances which begin the transition tot he resistance stage"
31-expermnts in group process and intergroup communication took place in 1940s, conducted by a german jewish (kurt lewin) refugee, examined interracial conflicts and provided opportunites to "get into the shoes of others" (Lippitt 49)
32-more experiments took place in the 40s and,50s, 60s, and 70s for black-white sensitivity training
-mulitcultural theoriests--suzuki 84, banks 91, banks and banks 95, nieto 96, grant 92, sleeter 94
-intl training started in 50s for student programs abroad
-few notes on idy dvlpmnt models 1) dvlpmnet is influenced by the pervasiveness of oppression 2) idy evlolves to greater complexity 3) idy has a goal of liberation from internalized oppression 4) indvl interactions are affected by levles of consciousness 5) stage is a metaphor for evolving states of consciousness
??it did mention that social justice work dvlpd BASED on black civil rits models, not based on student mvmnt models